Many modes of transportation have evolved and many more have gone extinct.the mode of our transportation has developed alongside the expansion of human understanding and culture.our greatest demand and challenges have, in turn,initiated our greatest inventive feats that have taken us from where we have come to where we intend to go.transportation has been the key to our most powerful sociology and teleological growth.
History of Evolution of Transportation
During the 17th century, by 1620, we launched the first oar-propelled submarine. By 1662, we invented the horse-drawn bus.by 1672, we built the first steam-powered car.
During the 18th century,by 1740, we invented the foot- and- hand powered carriage. By 1769, we experimented with the steam-driven artillery tractor.by 1760, we used iron rails.By 1776,we propelled submarines by screws. By 1783, we launched the first hot air and hydrogen balloons . By 1784, we built a stream carriage.
During the 19th century, by 1801,we ran steam road locomotives. By 1803, we ran commercial steam carriages and steamboats. By 1804 ,we built steam power railway locomotives and amphibious vehicles. By 1807, we used hydrogen powered internal combustion engines in boats and road vehicles. By 1816, we invented bicycles. By 1821,we used steam power monorails. By 1825,we began using steam powered passenger carriages. By 1838, we built the first transatlantic steamship. By 1852, we invented the elevator. By 1853, we built aircraft gliders. By 1862, we made gasoline engine automobiles. By 1867, we began using motorcycles. By 1880, we built electric elevators. By 1896,we built electric escalators. By 1897,we had the steam turbine and electric bicycle and so on……
Evolution of Transportation
Long ago people did not have any means of transport. They used to move only on foot and carry goods either on their back or using animals. For transport along water routes,boats were used from ancient times. To begin with,boats were simple logs of wood in which a hollow cavity could be made.
Invention of the wheel made a great change in modes of transport. The invention of the steam engine introduced a new source of power.Railroads were made for steam engine driven carriage and wagons in the 16th century. The early years of 1900 saw the development of airplanes. These were later improved to carry passengers and goods. Electric trains,monorail,supersonic airplanes and spacecraft are some of the 20th century contributions to transportation..
The Difference Between The Past And Present in Transportation
The Past in Transport
The development of transport during this stage of history was very slow and difficult,as people were carrying their goods on their head or on their backs or running on the ground.
In about 5000 BC, people began to use animals to transport loads and goods like mules and donkeys.After 3000 BC, the vehicles were invented.they were made up of four wheels without a motor.
Boats were also invented,and humans began using animals,vehicles and boats to carry loads to many places faster and easier than before.
In the late 18th century inventors produced the first vehicles,and then intervention in means of transport until the fifteenth century AD, where improvements have been made in the construction of large vessels;to make long journeys possible across the various seas and oceans.
In the 18th century steam engines and trains were invented, leading to the emergence of steam-powered vehicles. In the 19th century,oil and gas were discovered and harnessed to serve and develop various means of transport by building vessels and vehicles powered by gas and oil engines.
Transport in the Present
Today’s transportation has been a significant leap forward, transforming the world into a small village,these include:
Cars: The development of the world of cars has been a great speed, we are now witnessing many different shapes,types and designs of them,and the car companies are more competitive;to manufacture the latest cars and fastest and most comfortable and safe.
Trains: Trains are one of the most modern means of transport,through which thousands of people are transported through long distances and vast inside or outside their countries, and through which we transfer many different materials and goods and at a lower price compared to the means.
Buses and Trucks: Buses are one of the most important modes of mass transport,transporting many people to and from their workplaces.Buses are used as a pubic transport.it is cheap and saves time and effort to move around
The Determinants of Change in the Transportation Industry
Environmental: At the local scale existing hydrographical and geomorphological characteristics are a strong factor in transport development, particularly in time of the technical challenges (bridge gradients). Climate, which is a more regional attribute,also conditions transportation, condition and operations. At the national level,distance underlines the geographical scale to be serviced,influencing transport infrastructure development since serving the nation becomes imperative.
Historical: Settlement patterns,which are influenced by cultural attributes,strongly influence local transport development,such as street girds.at the regional level,the structure of an urban system,the result of historical process such as colonialism and form of imperialism that have shaped aspects of national transport developments,particularly in areas of the world that were colonized. It is the process of globalization that has one of the most enduring influences in recent decades in shaping the global transport system.
Technological: Each transportation technology has a matching scale of development.Roads, despite their ubiquity,are strongly associated with local(short distance)mobility.at the regional level,this mobility becomes more the realm of railways(or canal when present),although air transportation has a strong regional component. The technologies that have supported the most transport development at the global level are mainly air transportation and telecommunication. Paradoxically, these technologies are mostly used at the regional(air)and local(telecommunications)levels
Political: Transportation development is a process that is managed and regulated. At the local level, zoning is the regulatory framework that influences most transport development since it dictates what is allowed to be built including the function of what is being built.forms of taxation and regulations such as safety and operating conditions are political aspect that play at the regional(most transport regulation are at the state/provincial) and the national level.
Economic: Economics processes shape transportation development since its core purpose is to support economic activities and their interactions. The more advanced an economy is,the more intensive and efficient transportation systems are. Employment and distribution are key drivers focusing on the transit system as well as the freight distribution of final goods.Market are increasingly perceived as transnational,requiring coordinated supply strategies.
Drivers of Change for Future Transportation
Each driver of change for transportation plays a role individually and in conjunction.it is therefore virtually impossible to establish outcomes accurately as there are too many interrelationships and uncertainties, particularly if a longer time frame is considered.trend that impact drivers individually and to assess how these trends will shape different component of the transportation system:
Policy: inherent scales and complexity of transportation systems,particularly when they span multiple jurisdictions,will require novel approaches in governance.the role and impact of government policy is commonly subject to cycles of increasing commitments followed by different forms of retrenchment(eg privatization)as regulations lead productive practice and unintended consequences.
Demography and Society: Population growth is expected to endure in many parts of the world until the mild 21st century, a process which will be linked with demands in mobility and increased consumption. In other parts of the world such as in the Western Europe,North America and Japan,the rapid aging of the population and more people in retirement age will be associated with changes in mobility and lower levels of consumption per capita
Energy and Environment: Issues related to the availability of energy and raw materials.particularly fossil fuel,are likely to endure .A whole range of alternative fuels will be brought forward and transportation activities will increasingly be considered within a sustainability framework.climate change is also an issue sustainability of transport system,particularly in terms of a more stringent regulatory framework and changes in customer preference
Technology: technological innovation is a very difficult process to anticipate and its impacts even more complex to assess. For transportation,technological innovations either concern the management,the mode(or infrastructure)or the motion(engine). This is commonly linked with a better utilization of existing assets and derived productivity gains.it also has a high potential to contribute to trade facilitation through more efficient customer procedures as cargo.